The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and neonatal outcomes
Introduction: Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble vitamin and has multiple functions. It affects calcium metabolism, modulates the immune system, cell proliferation, and differentiation.
Objective: To study the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and neonatal outcome in a tertiary care hospital, to study the association between maternal vitamin D and medical disorders, and to correlate maternal vitamin D deficiency with neonatal vitamin D levels and neonatal outcomes.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and observational study was conducted over a period of one year on 355 antenatal women admitted for safe confinement. 4 ML of whole blood was collected from median ante-cubital fossa and vitamin D levels were assessed using ELFA [Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay] following delivery, and 2ml of cord blood was also collected and sent for Vitamin D levels. R
esults: Out of the total study population, 12.96% (46) had adequate levels of vitamin D, the majority - 74.65% (265) had insufficient vitamin D levels, and 12.39% (44) had severe vitamin D deficiency. The overall deficiency among neonates was 95.22%. No significant association was found between vitamin D deficiency and maternal complications, except for the mode of delivery which was statistically significant with a P-value of 0.04.
Conclusion: This study reaffirms that vitamin D deficiency is on the increase and therefore needs intervention by biochemical screening and corrective measures during pregnancy.
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