Correlation between placental location and maternal fetal outcome
Background: Placenta is the vital link between fetus and the uterine wall. Based on location, it can be classified as anterior, posterior, lateral, fundal and low lying. Placental location can be easily determined in the antenatal period using ultrasound.
Materials and Methods: Design: Prospective observational study.
Study period: One year from January 2018 to February 2019 in a tertiary hospital in Salem district of Tamilnadu.
Study population: After informed consent, 200 women with singleton pregnancy of ≥28 weeks attending antenatal OPD were included in the study. Women were followed up with ultrasound at 28 weeks and 34 weeks to identify any maternal and fetal adverse effects such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm birth and NICU admission.
Results: The mean age of the study participants was 24.3 ± 43 years. Of the 200 women, 42% (n=84) of placenta were situated in fundus, 30% (n=60) were anterior, 18% (n=36) were lateral, 8% (n=16) were posterior and 2% (n=4) were low lying. Gestational hypertension was present in 22%, 13%, 12% in lateral, anterior and posterior placental location respectively. Preeclampsia was seen in 22% in lateral placental location. Preterm labour, PROM, low birth weight and NICU admission were common in posterior and lateral placental location.
Conclusion:There was statistically significant association between low lying, posterior and lateral placental location and adverse maternal fetal outcomes. Hence ultrasound can be used as the safe, cost effective, non-invasive tool in predicting the adverse maternal and neonatal outcome.
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